Fingerprint sensor explained in simple language! No intelligency required!

Hello people, As you can see most of the new phones come with fingerprint sensor these days. Even a very soft touch of our finger is identified by the sensor. Have you ever wondered how does it work?

In this article, we are going to learn about the principle behind it. Don’t worry, it is not a rocket science! I will explain you in very easy steps.
So, here we go,

Types of Fingerprints:


It has several types as you can see in the picture. This variation in types is the answer of the question ” Why fingerprint is chosen for security purposes? “. It is useful for security because the probability of more than one people having exactly same fingerprint is very less. Moreover, the variation in types also decreases the probability further.

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Types of fingerprint sensors:

Generally, there are 2 types of sensors.

  • Optical 
  • Capacitive


Optical sensor:

When we put our finger in an optical fingerprint sensor from different angles, a common print of our finger is created which, for instance, look like this


An optical sensor detects some certain areas in a fingerprint which are shown below.

different checkpoints of a fingerprint sensor

These areas are detected in a fingerprint and a map is generated which looks like this

fingerprint identifiacation chart

After setting up, when you try to unlock your phone with finger print sensor, the optical sensor creates a map of your fingerprint and matches it with the stored one, if it matches, access is granted to you!

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Capacitive sensor:

Capacitive sensor has a quite simple principle. The sensor consists of several nano capacitor cells which detects the Ridge and Valley of your fingerprint.

Ridge is the crest part of your finger (lines on your finger).
Crest is the plain part of your finger.

When you put your finger in a capacitive sensor, the ridges touche some nano conductors while the valleys don’t. This happens due to difference in height. So, a map is generated with the help of those activated conductors which is saved in the system.

Next time, when you try to unlock your phone with finger, it detects the ridges and valleys of your finger, generates a map and matches it with the stored print.

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5 Responses

  1. Manish Goon says:

    Greatest article on finger print scanner….
    I ever seen..!!
    With easy explaination..

  2. Bablofil says:

    Thanks, great article.

  1. July 18, 2017


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